The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018 with one half to Frances H Arnold and the other half jointly to George P Smith and Sir Gregory P Winter for their work in evolution and phages. “This year’s Chemistry laureates have taken control of evolution and used the same principles – genetic change and selection – to develop proteins that solve humankind’s chemical problems,” the academy said in its announcement. According to the academy, the methods developed are now being internationally developed to promote a greener chemicals industry, produce new materials, manufacture sustainable biofuels, mitigate disease and save lives. Sir Gregory Winter, awarded the #NobelPrize in Chemistry, has used phage display to produce new pharmaceuticals. Today phage display has produced antibodies that can neutralise toxins, counteract autoimmune diseases and cure metastatic cancer. The 9-million-kronor ($1.01 million) chemistry prize is the last of this year’s scientific Nobel Prizes. Last year’s prize went to researchers in the United States, Switzerland and Britain who developed a microscope technique that lets scientists see details of the molecules that drive life. The winner of the Nobel Peace Prize is to be announced Friday. No literature prize will be awarded this year. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, honouring the man who endowed the five Nobel Prizes, will be revealed Monday. The medicine prize was awarded Monday to American and Japanese researchers. Scientists from the United States, Canada and France shared the physics prize Tuesday.